The Effects of Allium Sativum (Garlic) on N-Methyl-N-Nitrosourea Induced Transitional Cell Carcinoma in Wistar Rats: A Preliminary Study

The Effects of Allium Sativum (Garlic) on N-Methyl-N-Nitrosourea Induced Transitional Cell Carcinoma in Wistar Rats: A Preliminary Study
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Title:The Effects of Allium Sativum (Garlic) on N-Methyl-N-Nitrosourea Induced Transitional Cell Carcinoma in Wistar Rats: A Preliminary Study
Author/Abstract:

Mellmont L. Ocampo, MD; Luzcielo M. Roxas, MD; Dennis G. Lusaya, MD and Jerry H. Santos, MD Section of Urology, Department of Surgery, University of Santo Tomas Hospital

Objective: This study aimed to determine the effects of garlic (Allium sativum) on N-Methy-NNitrosourea induced transitional carcinoma in Wistar rats.

Methodology: Transitional cell carcinoma was induced in thirty male, age-matched Wistar rats (45-50 days old) through intravesical instillation of 0.1mL of N-Methy-N-Nitrosourea. They were divided into five treatment groups (0.1 mL of NSS; 0.1 mL of Mitomycin C; 0.1 mL of aqueous garlic extract in 10mg/kg, 20mg/kg, and 40mg/kg given daily for the duration of the study); with one rat sacrificed every week (starting two weeks from tumor induction) until all rats were sacrificed after one month. The urinary bladders of the rats were subjected to histopathologic examination by a single veterinary pathologist. One-way ANOVA was used to compare mitotic index, papillomatous growth and vascularization of the specimens at Days 14 (baseline), 21 and 28. A P-value of less than 0.05 was used to detect significant difference.

Results: Statistical analysis comparing mitotic index, papillomatous growth and vascularization showed no significant difference in the indices between the five treatment groups. It can be seen though that the P-value (0.144) for papillomatous growth was the smallest, which may indicate a trend towards a decrease in tumor growth at Day 28 for Mitomycin C and Garlic 40mg/kg.

Conclusions: This preliminary study showed a favorable trend towards decreased papillomatous growth in the MNU induced rat bladder carcinoma treated with aqueous extract of Garlic (Allium sativum) at a higher dose and a longer duration of time.

Key words: transitional cell carcinoma, garlic (Allium sativum), urinary bladder, intravesical therapy

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